a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

acceptance (n) [1]
Def.: final examination and approval of product before going to market
Ex.: Payment will be transferred to your account upon final acceptance of the product.
acceptance (n) [2]
Def.: quality control
Ex.: Payment of the machinery shall be subject to its acceptance by our quality control department.
acceptance (n) [3]
Def.: bill of exchange accepted by a drawee
Ex.: Please pass the acceptance on for payment.

access (n)
Def.: process or operation (in ADP) allowing data to be retrieved or read
Ex.: The program’s user interface allows easy access to all the files stored.
Zugang; Zugriff

accident (n)
Def.: unforeseen and undesired event causing damage or injury
Ex.: The worker claimed damages as a result of the accident suffered while at work.
Unfall; Störfall

account (n) [1]
Def.: counting; calculation
Ex.: My advice is: work on your own account!
account (n) [2]
Def.: statement of money (to be) paid or received (by a bank)
Ex.: I have opened an account with NatWest.

accountancy (n)
Def.: system of managing accounts and profession of an accountant
Ex.: We’ll have to check with accountancy to see whether your claims are justified.

accountant (n)
Def.: person keeping and examining business accounts
Ex.: After having studied business administration for about 3 years he got a job as an accountant in a big company.

accounts department (n)
Def.: section or department handling accounts; also: accounting department
Ex.: We’ll have to check with the accounts department whether your invoice amount has been transferred to your bank account.

acknowledgment (n)
Def.: official confirmation of the receipt of an order or contract by a buyer
Ex.: An acknowledgment would bring our contract into existence.

adjudge (vb)
Def.: (sb. a bankrupt) to decide in court that an insolvent person or company is bankrupt and his assets are placed under control
Ex.: The debtor was adjudged a bankrupt since the court found enough evidence of his insolvency.
Konkursverfahren eröffnen

adjustment (n)
Def.: (in business) granting the claim of a customer for being compensated for faulty goods or services
Ex.: Our business policy is to make prompt adjustments of our customers’ justified complaints and claims.
Regulierung (Schadens-)

administration (n)
Def.: management of business affairs and transactions
Ex.: Our administration people will handle this transaction with greatest care.

advance(d payment) (adj;n) [d payment]
Def.: payment made before or ahead of due date for goods or services to be received at a later date
Ex.: Considering the large volume of our order we are willing to offer you an advance by the end of the first quarter.
Anzahlung; Vorschuß

advertise (vb)
Def.: to make offer publicly known by means of communication (print, radio, TV, poster, etc)
Ex.: A newcomer to a market will have to advertise their products to ensure success in launching them.

advert(isement) (n) [isement]
Def.: (commercial) information published to advertise a product
Ex.: We refer you to our advert in the latest trade journal.
Annonce; Werbeanzeige

advice (n) [1]
Def.: information; notification
Ex.: The despatch advice will be sent together with our acknowledgment of order.
advice (n) [2]
Def.: counselling; helpful information
Ex.: You better try and get advice from a business consultant.
Beratung; Rat

agenda (n)
Def.: list of items or points to be discussed and/or decided
Ex.: Put this topic on the agenda for discussion under ‘Any other business’.

agent (n)
Def.: person acting on behalf of a company, institution, country, etc; merchant; salesman/person; dealer
Ex.: Since we do not sell our products ex works we would like to refer you to our agent in your town.
Agent; Vertreter; Handelsvertreter; Händler

agreement (n)
Def.: (spoken or written) arrangement or understanding between two or more persons or companies; contract; treaty
Ex.: This agreement shall come into force as of January 1.
Vereinbarung; Abkommen; Vertrag

allowance (n) [1]
Def.: sum of money allowed to sb. to cover expenses
Ex.: The expense allowance includes travelling expenses and sustenance.
allowance (n) [2]
Def.: reduction or deduction of money due
Ex.: There are certain goods on which we are entitled to tax allowance.
allowance (n) [3]
Def.: sum of money allowed to sb. to fill a financial gap
Ex.: The housing allowance by our company is granted to low-income employees.

amount (n)
Def.: (commercial:) sum of money; quantity; total
Ex.: Please transfer the invoice amount of $ 400.00 to our account.

annual accounts (adj;n;pl.)
Def.: yearly report by a company on its business activities, including a profit and loss account; also ‘annual report’
Ex.: Enclosed please find a copy of our annual accounts as evidence of our sound financial standing.

annual percentage rate (adj;n)
Def.: total cost of a credit expressed as an annual rate; abbreviated APR
Ex.: The lower the APR the better the credit offer!
effektiver Jahreszins

annual report (adj;n)
Def.: final accounts of business activities by a company after a year’s time to complete and explain its balance sheet and its profit-and-loss account
Ex.: All shareholders will get copies of the annual report for information on details.

annuity (n)
Def.: fixed annual income paid by insurance company during lifetime
Ex.: The majority of mortgage loans are repaid by borrowers on an annuity basis.
Rente; Jahreszahlung

application (n) [1]
Def.: (written) request made for employment or petition-in-bankruptcy
Ex.: Your letter of application did not contain your CV.
Bewerbung; Antrag
application (n) [2]
Def.: notice or information given on sth to be granted or allowed
Ex.: We will file a patent application for this invention.

apply (for) (vb) [for]
Def.: to seek employment (in writing)
Ex.: You won’t get a job unless you apply for one.
sich bewerben
apply (for) (vb) [for]
Def.: to notify or inform of sth. in writing in order to get permission or grant
Ex.: The Patent Office cannot grant you a patent since you haven’t applied for it.

appointment (n)
Def.: point in time or date agreed (for a meeting)
Ex.: May I remind you that we have an appointment with Mr. Shark at 5 o’clock.

apprentice (n)
Def.: person being taught or trained for a specific job or vocation; trainee
Ex.: Nowadays, many companies are reluctant to take on apprentices since they consider them additional cost factors.

approximation (n)
Def.: (process of) nearing a number or quantity
Ex.: Since we couldn´t reach exactly the same level we tried at least to do so by approximation.

arbitration (n)
Def.: settlement of commercial disputes between contracting parties by arbitrator(s) whose decision (award) is accepted as final
Ex.: The parties agree that any dispute arising out of or relating to this Agreement shall be resolved exclusively and finally by arbitration.

arbitration clause (n)
Def.: set of rules regulating commercial disputes between parties to a contract in which it is included
Ex.: An arbitration clause reads:’All disputes arising in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Conciliation and Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the Rules’.

arbitrator (n)
Def.: person acting as kind of a judge in a dispute between contracting parties
Ex.: Any dispute arising out of this Agreement shall finally be settled by one or more arbitrators.
Schiedsmann; Schiedsrichter

asset (n)
Def.: sth. owned by a company, person that has money value; credit
Ex.: The bankrupt’s assets are placed under the control of the official receiver.
Aktivposten; Vermögenswert; Besitztum; Guthaben

assignment (n)
Def.: legal transfer of property or rights
Ex.: The assignment of an inventor’s intellectual property rights has to be made before a notary public.

auction (n)
Def.: public sale of goods to person making the highest bid or offer
Ex.: If the importer fails to obtain release of the documents, the exporter will be forced to sell them by auction.

audit (n)
Def.: official examination of accounts
Ex.: We’ll have to get our records right before having another audit.

authorized (adj)
Def.: being given the power or right to act on behalf of another
Ex.: The contract has been duly signed by an authorized signatory of the company.

average (n)
Def.: (mathematical) mean; result of adding several quantities and dividing the total by the number of quantities
Ex.: The average of this year’s annual inflation rate has been 1.7 percent.
Durchschnitt; Querschnitt

award (n) [1]
Def.: order or contract placed in response to a bid under a tender system; see also invitation to tender
Ex.: To qualify for an award, tenderers must demonstate that they have successfully executed similar contracts.
award (n) [2]
Def.: final decision made by arbitrator(s) in a settlement of commercial disputes; see also arbitration
Ex.: The arbitrators’ award shall be accepted by the parties to this Agreement as final and binding.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

balance (n) [1]
Def.: difference between two columns of an account (assets and liabilities)
Ex.: May we remind you to pay the balance of the invoice by cheque or transfer it to our account.
Saldo; Unterschiedsbetrag; Restbetrag
balance (vb) [2]
Def.: to strike a balance
Ex.: Having balanced your account the statement shows a credit in your favour.
balance (vb) [3]
Def.: to make a settlement of accounts
Ex.: Please remit the amount of $ 10.000 in order to balance your account.
ausgleichen (Konto)

balance of payments (n)
Def.: difference between the exports and imports (goods, services, cash flows, etc) of a country relative to other countries
Ex.: As the UK’s interest rates are high, her balance of payments shows a substantial cash inflow.

balance of trade (n)
Def.: difference between a country’s imports and exports, excluding capital flow, relative to other countries
Ex.: The balance of trade shows clearly whether a country is paying its way with its exports.

balance sheet (n)
Def.: written report on a companies assets and liabilities (credit and debit) and various other details of a company in its annual report
Ex.: A company’s annual report has to include an official balance sheet.

bankruptcy (n)
Def.: condition of a (legal) person judged by a law court to be unable to meet their financial obligations
Ex.: The figure of bankruptcies last year was well above 200 in this town.

bank transfer (n)
Def.: transfer of money from one bank account to another
Ex.: Most Anglo-Saxon countries use bank transfers as an instrument of payment in foreign trade.

bargain (n) [1]
Def.: agreement or exchange of sth. (buy or sell); sth. obtained in this way
Ex.: The labour side tried to drive a hard bargain since a bad bargain wouldn’t have been accepted by their grassroots.
Geschäft; (günstiger) Kauf
bargain (n) [2]
Def.: agreement between management and labour over wages, working hours, etc
Ex.: The labour side tried to drive a hard bargain since a bad bargain wouldn’t have been accepted by their grassroots.

bar graph (n)
Def.: diagram or graph showing figures or values in the form of columns or bars
Ex.: As you can see from the bar graph, Germany´s steel production has decreased over the last ten years.

barter (n)
Def.: exchange of property, goods, etc. for other property, goods, etc.
Ex.: Trade between some developing countries in Africa is often based on a barter system.

bear (n)
Def.: person selling stock for future delivery and hoping to buy it back cheap.
Ex.: Bears sometimes sell shares they do not own on the assumption they can buy them cheaper when the time comes for delivery.

beneficiary (n)
Def.: person receiving payment through a bill of exchange, cheque or letter of credit
Ex.: A confirmed documentary credit gives a beneficiary double assurance of payment.

benefit (n)
Def.: allowance of money to which sb. is entitled as member of an insurance company or as citizen in a welfare state
Ex.: Unless you are able to provide evidence showing that you have had a job for some time, you won’t get any unemployment benefit.

bid (n)
Def.: proposal or offer of prices and terms for work or services to be performed under an invitation to tender system
Ex.: Your bid has been closely examined and the board has decided to give your company the award.
Ausschreibungsangebot; Gebot

bill (n) [1]
Def.: written statement of charges for goods delivered or services rendered
Ex.: Please, send the bill for my hotel accommodation to the accounts department of my company.
bill (vb) [2]
Def.: to submit a statement of charges for goods delivered or services rendered
Ex.: We billed your company for the amount of $ 25.000 due on September 1.
in Rechnung stellen; berechnen

bill of exchange (n)
Def.: order to a bank (or to a person) to pay a sum of money on a given date; abbreviated B/E
Ex.: When we passed the bill of exchange to the company for acceptance, they refused to do so.

bill of lading (n)
Def.: document issued as evidence for goods entrusted to a carrier or shipping company for conveyance by sea; abbreviated B/L
Ex.: As soon as a full set of a clean on-board bill of lading has been made out by the shipping company we’ll send all the documents to your bank.

board (n)
Def.: body of persons in power or management; committee; panel authorized to make decisions on behalf of others
Ex.: The board decided in favour of a merger.
Gremium; Kommission; Rat

bond (n)
Def.: long-term note issued under a legal procedure and secured by pledge of property or revenue or by general credit of issuer
Ex.: Most common bonds are issued by corporations, governments, or governmental agencies.
Anleihe; Obligation

branch (n)
Def.: division or sub-division of a large(r) company or institution
Ex.: We would like to refer you to our branch located near your town.
Zweiggeschäft; Zweigstelle; Filiale

brand (n)
Def.: particular kind of goods provided with a trademark
Ex.: Our customers always demand that specific brand as it is well known for its high quality.

broker (n)
Def.: person buying and/or selling goods or shares on behalf of a bank or company
Ex.: If your company wishes to effect insurance at Lloyd’s we’ll have to refer it to one of its brokers.
Makler (amtlicher)

budget (n)
Def.: estimate of likely income and expenditure made by a business company
Ex.: An economic and currency union will share policies on credit, budgeting and taxation.

budgeting (n)
Def.: process of planning financial requirements and estimating expenditure
Ex.: The project objectives cannot be met unless budgeting has been done on a sound basis.

building society (adj;n)
Def.: organization granting loans to its members for buying real estate or building homes, using funds supplied by its members
Ex.: Our building society can offer long-term loans on very favourable terms.

bull (n)
Def.: person trying to raise stock prices with a view to selling at a profit
Ex.: Although he had been very successful as a bull for years, he misread the market on that occasion and lost almost all his fortune.

business (n)
Def.: exchange of goods and services, accumulation of money and accounting of cost
Ex.: The company in question has been running this business for about 12 years.

business administration (n)
Def.: discipline dealing with the laws and regulations of running business
Ex.: They have been studying business administration for 4 years.

business cycle(s) (n) [s]
Def.: periodical fluctuations about the long-term trend in the level of economic activity (also ´trade cycle´)
Ex.: The pattern of business cycles varies across countries and over time in any one country.

business letter (n)
Def.: written and formalized piece of communication between business enterprises and the outside world
Ex.: The business letter usually consists of a letterhead, inside address, date, subject line, salutation, body of the letter, complimentary close, signature, and sometimes additional indications as to enclosures or carbon copy/ies


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

calculate (vb)
Def.: to find out (costs) by working with figures
Ex. After having calculated the estimated costs we decided not to participate in this transaction.
ausrechnen; kalkulieren

calculation (n)
Def.: act of finding a result by working with figures and numbers
Ex.: This transaction has to be based on careful calculation before a final decision can be made.

cancel (vb)
Def.: to withdraw or revoke (order); make nil and void
Ex.: We are sorry to cancel our order for the machinery.
widerrufen; stornieren; anullieren; rückgängig machen

capital cost (n)
Def.: initial cost of acquiring or buying equipment, etc., as distinguished from recurring cost
Ex.: Accountancy techniques allow capital and recurring costs to be combined into cost-in-use.

career (n)
Def.: progress through life or profession/vocation
Ex.: Enclosed with my letter of application you will find my CV with details about my professional career.
Laufbahn; Karriere

cargo (n)
Def.: goods (to be) transported; freight; shipment
Ex.: The machines have today been shipped by cargo vessel MS Denver from Liverpool.

carrier (n)
Def.: person or company taking care of transportation of goods
Ex.: The consignment has today been handed over to the carrier for shipment to the port of destination.
Frachtführer; Transporteur; Transportunternehmen

cash (n)
Def.: money in notes and coins; currency, usually including bank cheques and money orders.
Ex.: In published statements, the two items ‘cash on hand’ and ‘cash in bank’ are usually combined under the title ‘cash’.

cash discount (n)
Def.: discount granted when payment of goods or services is made in cash
Ex.: We cannot agree to the terms of payment offered unless you allow us a cash discount of 2.5 percent.
Skonto; Barzahlungsrabatt

cash flow (n)
Def.: movement of a company’s funds from sales and purchases
Ex.: Our cash flow analysis has to be based on an exact calculation of our business surplus from sales.
Kapitalbewegung; Cash Flow

caution mark (n)
Def.: sign or symbol used to mark out a package for overseas transport
Ex.: Our shipping instructions will also include hints for the necessary caution marks.

certificate of employment (n)
Def.: official evidence showing that sb. has had a job for a period of time
Ex.: Successful applicants for the post will have to produce at least one certificate of employment.

certificate of insurance (n)
Def.: proof of insurance for a shipment insured under an insurance policy
Ex.: The shipping documents will have to include a certificate of insurance.

certificate of origin (n)
Def.: document showing in which country goods have been manufactured
Ex.: Some countries still insist on having the certificate of origin included in the shipping documents.

CF, CFR (abbrev.)
Def.: cost and freight: Incoterm under which the exporter undertakes to ship the goods to the port of destination at his expense, insurance excluded
Ex.: Our terms include CF Hamburg.
CF (Kosten und Fracht)

chairperson (n)
Def.: person acting as head or manager of a company or presiding over a meeting
Ex.: Today´s general meeting has the election of a new chairperson on its agenda.

chamber of commerce (n)
Def.: group of persons organized for purposes of trade
Ex.: We owe your address our local chamber of commerce.

charge (n) [1]
Def.: cost(s); price asked for goods or services
Ex.: Our invoice includes charges for the accommodation of your staff.
Kosten; Preis; Gebühr
charge (vb) [2]
Def.: to ask as a price/ in payment; invoice; bill
Ex.: We charged your account with the amount of $ 3000.
belasten; berechnen; in Rechnung stellen

chart (n)
Def.: tabulated list of items
Ex.: This chart shows the key data of last year´s business development.

check (US) (n)
Def.: bill of exchange drawn on a bank and payable on demand
Ex.: Your check was returned by your bank saying there were no fund to honour it.

cheque (GB) (n)
Def.: bill of exchange drawn on a bank and payable on demand
Ex.: Your cheque was returned by your bank saying there were no fund to honour it.

CIF (abbrev.)
Def.: cost, insurance, freight: Incoterm under which the exporter undertakes to bear all costs for transport of the goods to the port of destination, including marine insurance
Ex.: We are able to offer you delivery of the machines on a CIF basis.
CIF (Kosten, Versicherung und Fracht)

clause (n)
Def.: (in a contract): statement or obligation subjecting a contracting party to fulfilling certain duties or giving it certain rights
Ex.: The contract includes a non-liability clause which will exempt the company from certain risks due to unforeseen circumstances.

collection (n) [1]
Def.: act of obtaining payment on presentation of shipping documents or instruments of payment
Ex.: The exporter has to give detailed instructions how the collection proceeds are to be remitted.
collection (n) [2]
Def.: act of taking delivery or picking up goods at the production site
Ex.: Please inform us ASAP when the goods are ready for collection.

collective bargaining (adj;n)
Def.: negotiations between employers and employees over wages and/or working hours
Ex.: In the coal industry, collective bargaining was often interrupted by wildcat strikes at individual mines.

commerce (n)
Def.: exchange and distribution of goods and services; trade
Ex.: Your country had made considerable progress in industry and commerce.

commercial (adj) [1]
Def.: of or for commerce
Ex.: The shipping documents should include your commercial invoice in triplicate.
commercial (adj) [2]
Def.: (of means of transport) used for the transport of goods
Ex.: Our rolling stock includes 20 commercial vehicles.

commission (n)
Def.: payment received from selling goods
Ex.: We can offer you a contract based on a commission of 10 percent on sales.

commodity (n)
Def.: article in trade (usually ‘commodities’)
Ex.: This commodity comes under the national import quota restrictions.

company (n)
Def.: business or manufacturing enterprise or firm, organised in different forms (see limited company and partnership)
Ex.: Last year, our company made a pre-tax profit of about $ 2m.

compete (vb)
Def.: to rival (with s.b. in price or quality); to take part in competition
Ex.: Our firm is competing directly with the local manufacturers, although we do not manufacture the product ourselves.

competition (n)
Def.: activities in business life for gaining market shares; business struggle or rivalry
Ex.: Due to fierce competition in this market, we are sorry to have to cut our prices.
Konkurrenz; Wettbewerb

competitivity (n)
Def.: ability to meet competition; to be competitive or able to hold one´s own in the market
Ex.: The competitivity of European industry will depend on how people of different nationalities can work together.

competitor (n)
Def.: person or company being in competition with others
Ex.: On examining our product you’ll find that its quality outweighs that of our competitor products.
Konkurrent; Mitbewerber

complaint (n)
Def.: (in commerce): statement of dissatisfaction with goods supplied or services rendered
Ex.: Please contact our adjustment service if you have any complaints concerning our printers.
Reklamation; Mängelrüge

computerize (vb)
Def.: to equip with computer(s); to automate sth. using computer equipment
Ex.: We are able to meet on-time delivery dates due to our computerized stocking system.

conciliation (n)
Def.: settlement of commercial or trade disputes, either by the parties involved or by means of a chamber of commerce
Ex.: All disputes shall finally be settled under the Rules of Arbitration and Conciliation.

confirmed (adj)
Def.: (of letter of credit) accepted and promised to be granted by the importer´s or correspondent bank
Ex.: The parties to the contract agreed on payment by confirmed and irrecvocable documentary credit.

confirmation (n)
Def.: making sth. firm; ratification; act of agreeing definitely to (e.g. a contract)
Ex.: We will place a standing order with you as soon as we get your confirmation on prices.

consignment (n)
Def.: goods (being shipped or delivered)
Ex.: The consignment has today been despatched by MS Ariane.
Sendung; Lieferung

consignment note (n)
Def.: document accompanying goods and made out by a supplier to be transported by rail, road or air
Ex.: The duplicate of the consignment note should be signed by the carrier as a receipt for the supplier.

consultant (n)
Def.: person, usually an expert business person, giving expert advice or expertise to companies
Ex.: As this problem is beyond our skills, we´d better invite a consultant to deal with it.

consume (vb)
Def.: to use up; to spend; to take up (time)
Ex.: The industrial countries have consumed twice as much energy in this field as all the developing countries have. The process was so time-consuming that we had to abandon it.

consumption (n)
Def.: act of using up or taking up; quantity consumed
Ex.: Fuel consumption has doubled over the last two decades.

contract (n)
Def.: binding agreement (between persons or companies) to supply (sell or buy) goods or services at certain prices and on certain terms
Ex.: Under this contract, the duties of NN shall comprise the supply of water and power to the project.
Vertrag; Auftrag

conveyance (n)
Def.: act of transporting (done by a carrier)
Ex.: Before shipping the machines to your warehouse, please let us know which mode of conveyance you prefer.

cost (n)
Def.: price (to be) paid for sth.; money charged for sth. (see also overheads)
Ex.: We won’t be able to take delivery of the machine unless you cut its cost considerably.

cost-benefit analysis (n)
Def.: procedure derived from enterpreneurial investment calculations to assess the advantages of public investments or other measures (in terms of money)
Ex.: According to our cost-benefit analysis, the road construction project submitted shows substantial advantages for most of your town’s inhabitants.

cost of living (n)
Def.: expenses required to keep up a subsistence level
Ex.: Due to a sharp rise in prices, the cost of living index changed drastically.

credit (n) [1]
Def.: confidence put in person or company to be able to pay debts or keep a promise to pay at a later date
Ex.: Our agency has enquired into the credit of that firm.
credit (n) [2]
Def.: target allowed to sb. to pay for sth. at a later (fixed) date
Ex.: This time bill allows them a credit of 3 months.
credit (n) [3]
Def.: record of payment received
Ex.: They still have a credit of $ 25,000 with our bank.
credit (n) [4]
Def.: (short for) letter of credit
Ex.: We instructed our bankers to open a documentary credit.

credit (vb) [5]
Def.: to enter on the credit side of an account
Ex.: We have credited your crossed cheque to your account.

credit memo(randum) (n) [randum]
Def.: statement showing assets (funds available)
Ex.: According to our credit memo, we are still in the black figures.

creditor (n)
Def.: person to whom money is owing
Ex.: A petition in bankruptcy was filed by the creditors of the insolvent company.

crossed cheque (n)
Def.: cheque (to be) credited to a bank account
Ex.: Payment may also be effected by means of a crossed cheque.

currency (n)
Def.: money actually in use in a country
Ex.: The US dollar has been the keystone currency since Bretton Woods.

current account (n)
Def.: account for recording current transactions between parties
Ex.: Usually, a bank will not pay any interest on a current account.

current assets (n;pl)
Def.: cash or other assets reasonably expected to be converted into cash, sold or consumed within a year
Ex.: Current assets are usually listed in descending order of their expected conversion into cash.

curriculum vitae (CV) (n) [CV]
Def.: brief written account of one’s past (professional or job) history
Ex.: Make sure your letter of application also contains your CV.

customer (n)
Def.: person or company interested in buying goods or services; client
Ex.: A customer who is interested in an offer may be considered a ‘prospect’.
Kunde; Kaufinteressent

customs (n;pl) [1]
Def.: taxes due to a government on goods imported; import duties
Ex.: Before we can take delivery of them, the goods will have to be cleared through customs.
customs (n;pl) [2]
Def.: government department collecting duties on goods
Ex.: Before we can take delivery of them, the goods will have to be cleared through customs.

customs clearance (n)
Def.: act of clearing goods through customs
Ex.: Your machines will be released to your carrier on customs clearance at the port of destination.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

damage (n)
Def.: injury or harm causing (material) loss of value
Ex.: The shipping company will not issue a clean bill of lading unless the consignment is free of damage.
Schaden; Schäden; Beschädigung

damages (n;pl)
Def.: indemnification (to be) given or received by a person or company causing or suffering loss or injury
Ex.: The injured worker claimed damages from his company.

data bank (n)
Def.: system involving one or more databases and auxiliary facilities for using the database(s)
Ex.: The company has now developed so many databases that it is able to establish a real data bank.

database (n)
Def.: stock or collection of information stored for retrieval and use or processing
Ex.: Check with the inventory database to make sure we have enough spares.

dealer (n)
Def.: merchant trading in goods or services
Ex.: We are referring you to Mr. Hummer who is our authorized dealer in your area.

debit (vb) [1]
Def.: to enter on the debit side of an account
Ex.: As requested, we have debited your account with the amount of $ 500.
debit (n) [2]
Def.: entry in an account of a sum of money owing
Ex.: Please transfer $ 10,000 for settlement of your debit account.

debit memo(randum) (n) [randum]
Def.: statement showing liabilities (money owed)
Ex.: We received a debit memo this morning showing a balance of $ 22,000 in the bank’s favour.

debt (n)
Def.: liabilities; financial obligation; money owing
Ex.: After having paid its debts, the company was again able to renew business contacts.
Schuld(en); Forderung

debtor (n)
Def.: person who owes money to sb.
Ex.: The debtor will be adjudged a bankrupt if sufficient proof of insolvency is found.

decline (n)
Def.: going down; fall(ing); drop; downswing
Ex.: There was a marked decline in Germany’s economic stability during the sixties.

delivery (n)
Def.: act of despatching, transporting or transferring goods to customer US: shipment
Ex.: Our terms of delivery are FOB.
Lieferung; An-, Aus-, Zulieferung

delivery date (n)
Def.: exact point in time at which goods are (to be) delivered; deadline
Ex.: We must insist on the delivery date being 1st August.

delivery time (n)
Def.: period from date of order to delivery date
Ex.: Our present delivery time is 4 to 5 weeks on receipt of order.
Lieferzeit; Lieferfrist

demand (n) [1]
Def.: request, wish or desire to buy, employ, contract for goods or services
Ex.: We are unable to supply the amount ordered by you since the goods are in high demand and our production facilities are limited.
demand (n) [2]
Def.: request, wish or desire to buy, employ, contract for goods or services
Ex.: Please let us know whether you can supply the goods on demand.

deposit (n)
Def.: amount of money lent to a bank for a certain period of time
Ex.: Time deposits require money to be deposited for a fixed period or fixed notice to be given before withdrawal.

deposit account (n)
Def.: account with a bank on which interest is paid for a fixed deposit
Ex.: Our deposit accounts will be subject to a 3-day period of notice.

depreciation (n)
Def.: lessening of value or estimation; gradual falling of purchasing power
Ex.: The Spanish currency suffered from a considerable depreciation due to the sinking prices of her produce.
Wertminderung; Abschreibung; Entwertung

despatch (vb)
Def.: to prepare for delivery and send off
Ex.: The goods have been despatched today and will arrive at the port of shipment by tomorrow.
abfertigen; absenden; versenden

destination (n)
Def.: port or place to which goods are (to be) shipped
Ex.: Under CF terms, the goods will be shipped to the port of destination.

diagram (n)
Def.: drawing, design or plan to explain or illustrate sth.; graph or table showing information by figures or lines
Ex.: The diagram enclosed will give you an idea of our company’s swiftly growing sales.
Diagramm; grafische Darstellung; Schaubild; Schema

discount (n)
Def.: reduction or concession in price of goods for payment in cash, for quantities bought or for trader
Ex.: Your invoice does not show the quantity discount granted in your offer.
Diskont; Rabatt; (Preis-)Nachlaß

distribution (n)
Def.: act of spreading (out) goods or products on a wholesale basis
Ex.: We are seeking an experienced sales promoter able to reorganise our distribution network.
Verteilung; Vertrieb; Großhandel; (Waren-)Verlag

division of labour (n)
Def.: distribution of work or jobs between various people, enterprises, regions or nations to improve economic efficiency
Ex.: In the course of the last century, fierce industrial competition has forced many industries to introduce the division of labour concept in order to survive.

documentary credit (adj;n)
Def.: letter of credit accompanied by other shipping documents
Ex.: If we are satisfied with the quality of your shipment we shall pay by documentary credit.

document of title (n)
Def.: shipping document giving an authorized holder the right to claim goods from a shipping company to which they have been entrusted for transport
Ex.: A bill of lading, as a document of title, must be issued in a set of three originals.

domestic market (adj;n)
Def.: internal or home market
Ex.: Although business prospects were good abroad, sales went down a bit in the domestic market.

draft (n) [1]
Def.: bill of exchange drawn on a third person, called ‘drawee’
Ex.: Payment may be made by cheque or by means of a sight draft.
draft (n) [2]
Def.: outline; rough sketch; preliminary version
Ex.: We are sending you enclosed our draft agreement.

drop (n)
Def.: falling; going down; decline
Ex.: After the chairman’s declaration on the company’s balance sheet, there was a drop in share prices.

duties (n;pl)
Def.: payment to be made to government on imported or exported goods, goods manufactured in a country, property transferred by sale to sb.
Ex.: These goods are allowed to enter the country without requiring customs duties to be paid.
Gebühren; Abgaben

duty (n)
Def.: payment made to government for imported or exported goods
Ex.: The goods will be delivered duty paid.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

earnings (n;pl)
Def.: financial result or profits earned from a business; proceeds
Ex.: The trustee will also have to distribute the earnings to the creditors in proportion to their debts.

economics (n;pl)
Def.: science of the production, distribution and consumption of goods
Ex.: After having studied economics he applied for a post in a large textile company.

economy (n)
Def.: system for the use and management of resources
Ex.: One of the EU’s targets is to unify the political economies of their member states.

economy of scale (n)
Def.: mass production resulting in decreasing cost with increasing numbers of units produced
Ex.: Our company cannot make a profit without considering the economy-of-scale principle.
Kostendegression (durch große Stückzahlen)

embassy (n)
Def.: official residence as well as mission and duty of an authorized representative (ambassador) of a government in a foreign country
Ex.: We owe your address to the local British Embassy.

employee (n)
Def.: person working under contract for a firm, usually on a regular payment basis, called salary
Ex.: Employees who are doing office work are sometimes called white-collar workers.
Angestellte(r); Arbeitnehmer(in)

employer (n)
Def.: person or company providing work or a job against compensation or wages
Ex.: Collective bargaining did not result in higher wages as the employer side was not prepared to grant any rise.

employment (n)
Def.: state or condition of being given (regular) work or occupation, usually for payment
Ex.: Owing to the business upswing, employment figures reached a new peak.
Anstellung; Beschäftigung; Arbeit(sverhältnis)

employment scheme (n)
Def.: programme, usually launched by government, to create and offer jobs
Ex.: Authorities were forced to resort to a new employment scheme as the country´s unemployment rate was rising.

enclosure (n)
Def.: sth. that is attached to, or included in, a letter
Ex.: You’ll find the necessary information on our product in the enclosure with this letter.
Anlage (Brief)

endorsement (n)
Def.: bill of exchange or cheque signed on its back by a person (endorser) to make it a transferable or negotiable to-order instrument of payment
Ex.: We cannot accept your bill unless it carries an endorsement signed by Messrs. Amons Ltd.

enquiry (n)
Def.: oral or written request from prospective customer for (amount or price of) goods
Ex.: We thank you for your enquiry of March 1 regarding office supply.

enterprise (n)
Def.: undertaking; conduct of trade and industry
Ex.: American businesses have always been marked by the spirit of free enterprise.

equal opportunity (adj;n)
Def.: equal chances (and rights) offered to all members of a society, irrespective of their race, sex, religion, etc.
Ex.: Successful staff management includes consideration of equal opportunity for a company´s minority members.

equity (n)
Def.: total value of owners’ or stockholders’ investments in terms of shares and stocks without bearing interest
Ex.: The two main sources of a company’s equity are paid-in capital and net income retained in the business.

estimate (n)
Def.: approximate and advanced calculation of value, cost, etc.
Ex.: We asked the construction company to give us a rough estimate of the cost to be expected.
Schätzung; Veranschlagung; (Kosten-)Voranschlag

exchange rate (n)
Def.: relationship of the currency of a country with that of another country.
Ex.: The current exchange rate favours our efforts to establish business contacts with South America.

executive (n) [1]
Def.: person responsible for the management of a company and/or having authority to carry out decisions
Ex.: The executive board has decided to lay off even more staff by next year.
Geschäftsleiter; Vorstandsmitglied (AG); leitende(r) Angestellte(r)
executive (adj) [2]
Def.: responsible for the management of a company and/or having authority to carry out decisions
Ex.: The executive director has decided to lay off even more staff by next year.

exhibition (n)
Def.: act of presenting (a novel product or process) to the public at a fair
Ex.: Having seen your product at the recent exhibition we ask you to send us more information on it.

exhibit (n)
Def.: novel product or process presented to the public at a fair
Ex.: Make sure the exhibit is being displayed at a focal point of our stand.

expenditure (n)
Def.: money spent
Ex.: Our records show a heavy expenditure on new equipment.
Ausgabe (Geld)

expenses (n;pl)
Def.: money required for or spent on accommodation and subsistence (on a business trip)
Ex.: Since the company´s income decreased last year, finance had to cut down all expenses for travelling.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

fair (n)
Def.: market or special place for exhibition or exposition of products or services
Ex.: We would be very glad to see you at the next book fair.
Messe; Austellung

Far East (n)
Def.: China, Japan, etc.
Ex.: More and more Western companies are extending their business activities to countries of the Far East.
Ferner Osten

FAS (abbrev.)
Def.: free alongside ship: Incoterm under which exporter bears all costs for transport of the goods to port of shipment
Ex.: We understand that you want us to submit an offer on an FAS basis.
FAS (frei Längsseite Schiff)

feasibility study (n)
Def.: analysis of economic, ecological and technological conditions under which a project is to be carried out
Ex.: Before we can enter into details of this project, we’ll have to entrust our consultants with a feasibility study.
Durchführbarkeitsstudie; Machbarkeitsstudie

fee (n)
Def.: payment or charge (to be) made for services or advice
Ex.: We’ll have to charge you an entry fee of $ 5.

figure (n)
Def.: symbol for a number (such a 0 to 9)
Ex.: There was a sharp rise in sales figures as a result of the country’s tax cut.
Zahl; Ziffer

finance (n)
Def.: provision and management of a company’s funds
Ex.: Being an expert at finance he easily found a job in the banking business.

finished goods (adj;n;pl)
Def.: completed but unsold manufactured products
Ex.: The quality of our finished goods is unrivalled.

flex(i)time (n) [i]
Def.: system of (agreed) working hours in which employee can choose when to start and stop working provided the number of working hours is correct
Ex.: The company was forced to introduce the flexitime system.
flexible Arbeitszeit; Gleitzeit

FOB (abbrev.)
Def.: free on board: Incoterm under which exporter bears all transport cost for goods till loaded on board a vessel
Ex.: We can offer you delivery of the goods on an FOB basis.
FOB (frei an Bord)

follow-up letter (n)
Def.: letter sent by a supplier to potential customers reminding them of offers subjected or trying to incite further business
Ex.: If the customer fails to place an order with us, we should send him a follow-up letter as a reminder of our quotation.

Force Majeure (n)
Def.: unforeseen circumstances or circumstances beyond control (for which a company usually accepts no liability)
Ex.: Force Majeure circumstances usually include strikes, lockouts, floods, fire, war, riots.
Höhere Gewalt

foreign currency (adj;n)
Def.: currency or money actually in use in a foreign country
Ex.: The Eastern Block countries were eager to obtain as much foreign currency as they could get to meet their import payment obligations.
Fremdwährung; Devisen; Valuta

foreign exchange (adj;n)
Def.: exchange of a country’s money for foreign currency
Ex.: The current foreign exchange rates are shown in the bank’s daily bulletin.

forwarding agent (adj;n)
Def.: person or company handling the formalities and transport of goods; forwarder
Ex.: The machines have today been handed over to our forwarding agent for transport to the port of shipment.
Spediteur; Spedition

fraction (n)
Def.: (mathem.) number representing a numerical value less than one
Ex.: The company earned only a fraction of last year´s income.

franchise (n)
Def.: agreement between two parties, under which one party grants the other one rights to perform certain functions or sell certain goods or services owned by it
Ex.: After some lengthy negotiations we obtained a franchise from the transport authority to run a bus service.

free enterprise (adj;n)
Def.: economy that is governed by the laws of supply and demand with a minimum of State control
Ex.: With the advent of a free enterprise economy the GUS countries had the chance to offer their natural resources on the world market.
Marktwirtschaft (freie)

freight (n)
Def.: act of carrying goods, or goods carried, from place (port) of shipment to place (port) of destination; carriage
Ex.: CIF terms include cost, insurance and freight to the port of destination.
Verfrachtung; Fracht

funds (n;pl)
Def.: amount of money earmarked for a specific purpose
Ex.: My bank has noticed me that there were no funds in my account.
Mittel (Geld)


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

gainful employment (adj;n)
Def.: employment for the purpose of earning one´s living
Ex.: More and more women begin a gainful employment in order to add to the household budget.

general partnership (adj;n)
Def.: partnership (also called ‘ordinary’ partnership) in which the partners have unlimited liability
Ex.: They lost all their fortune when their general partnership went bankrupt.

graph (n)
Def.: diagram consisting of (curved) line(s) showing the variation of quantities or trends
Ex.: This graph shows you the positive development of our business operations.
grafische Darstellung; Schaubild; Kurvenbild

gross domestic product (adj;n)
Def.: result of all production factors used at home and valued at current market prices within a specified period of time; short: GDP
Ex.: The gross domestic product differs from the gross national product in that it does not include the net property income from abroad.

gross national product (adj;n)
Def.: annual total value of goods and services provided in a country (GNP)
Ex.: Britain’s GNP has decreased dramatically this year.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

headquarters (n;pl)
Def.: main location or head offices of a company or institution
Ex.: We will have to check with our headquarters if there are any supply problems.
Hauptsitz; Zentrale

hedge (vb)
Def.: (commerc.) to secure oneself against loss (by compensating transactions)
Ex.: We can only hedge against the variation in price by buying a forward contract for 5000 barrels of oil.
sichern (sich)

hire (vb) [1]
Def.: to allow the use of or contract services in return for a certain amount of money or for payment by instalment(s)
Ex.: We’ll have to hire this machinery to be able to do the job.
hire (vb) [2]
Def.: to contract the services of sb. in return for a certain amount of money or regular payment
Ex.: We’ll have to hire an expert to be able to do the job.
anstellen; einstellen

hire purchase (n)
Def.: sales contract allowing one to buy sth. by instalments but to use it after first instalment
Ex.: Being short of readily available funds we decided to buy the machinery on a hire purchase basis.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

import licence (n)
Def.: government permit to be applied for by importer of goods if subject to quantitative restrictions
Ex.: Import licences are granted only until the import quota is exhausted.

income (n)
Def.: money received for work done or services rendered or as interest from capital investment
Ex.: He earned an annual income of over $ 100.000.

Incoterms (abbrev.)
Def.: (short for International Commercial Terms) Uniform definitions of terms of delivery in foreign trade laid down by the International chamber of commerce on the duties and obligations to be fulfilled by the parties to a contract
Ex.: CIF terms are the most expensive Incoterms in overseas trade.
Incoterms; internationale Handelsbedingungen

increase (n)
Def.: rise; going up; augmentation
Ex.: There was a considerable increase in production and sales of computers in 1989.

indemnification (n)
Def.: compensation in terms of money given for harm or injury suffered
Ex.: Indemnification for the damaged machinery was denied on grounds of inadequate insurance.
Entschädigung; Ersatzleistung; Sicherstellung

industrial action (adj;n)
Def.: action taken by employees to back their demands (for higher wages or fewer working hours); strike
Ex.: Since the employers didn’t respond to their claims, the workers took to industrial action.

industrial law (adj;n)
Def.: legal regulations governing the rights and duties of employers and employees
Ex.: Unless we can settle this dispute amicably, we´ll have to take it to the courts for a decision under the industrial law.

industry (n) [1]
Def.: trade or manufacture of goods and services
Ex.: They have found well-paid jobs in industry.
industry (n) [2]
Def.: (with article): branch of trade and manufacture of goods and services
Ex.: They have found well-paid jobs in the computer industry.

input (n)
Def.: amount of sth. entered or introduced; investment
Ex.: A country’s economic situation can also be judged by the ratio of capital input to the output of goods and services.
Leistung (zugeführte); Einsatz; Investition

insolvent (adj)
Def.: being unable to pay (debts), bankrupt
Ex.: An insolvent debtor may file a petition in bankruptcy with the proper court.

instalment (n)
Def.: part of a payment extended over a certain period of time
Ex.: We are paying for the equipment by monthly instalments.
Rate; Abschlagszahlung; Teilzahlung

insurance (n)
Def.: safeguard offered by a company or a State against harm or loss of material or immaterial goods or payment made to or by such a company
Ex.: CIF terms include cost, insurance and freight paid by the exporter.

insurance benefit (n)
Def.: allowance of money to which an ensured person is entitled
Ex.: Our contract stipulates that dental treatment will not come under your insurance benefits.

insurance policy (n)
Def.: certificate issued by an insurance company
Ex.: A full set of the shipping documents must include an insurance policy.

intangible (adj)
Def.: (said of an asset): non-material; having a future value for a business
Ex.: Some intangible assets such as patents, copyrights and franchises can readily be identified, others such as goodwill cannot.

integer (n)
Def.: whole number
Ex.: When presenting our sales figures, round up the fractions to make integers.
Zahl (ganze)

interest (n) [1]
Def.: amount of money (to be) paid or received for borrowing or lending funds (loan), usually expressed in percentage
Ex.: The bank charged us an interest of 8.5 per cent for our $10,000 loan.
Zins(en); Zinssatz
interest (n) [2]
Def.: legal claim or right in (part of) sth.
Ex.: We were forced to sell our interests in that company.
Anteil; Beteiligung

interest rate (n)
Def.: percentage ratio of (annual) payment to total investment; specific amount of interest
Ex.: The interest rates vary according to the changes in supply and demand for loanable funds in the market.

inventory (n)
Def.: detailed list or database of materials and goods on stock
Ex.: Before placing another order, we’ll have to draw up an inventory of what we’ve got.
Inventar; Lagerbestand

investment (n)
Def.: sum of money put to a specific use
Ex.: They obtained a high income by careful investment of their funds.
Investition; Anlage

invitation to tender (n; vb)
Def.: call of a public agency to companies wishing to place contracts for equipment, construction work, etc.
Ex.: The Ministry is addressing an Invitation to Tender for the design, erection and commissioning of a power plant.

invoice (n)
Def.: bill or account stating the amount of goods delivered per unit price as well as its total (invoice amount)
Ex.: Your invoice does not show the quantity discount promised in your offer.

irrevocable (adj)
Def.: (of a letter of credit) not to be revoked or withdrawn
Ex.: The two parties to the contract agreed on payment by irrevocable and confirmed documentary credit.

item (n) [1]
Def.: unit (in a list) or single article (of merchandise)
Ex.: The wide variety of items offered shows the scope of our production range.
item (n) [2]
Def.: topic or issue (to be) dealt with in an agenda
Ex.: Please add this item as being urgent for decision.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

job (n)
Def.: piece or place of work (to be) done; employment
Ex.: Being over 50 he was unable to find another job.
Arbeit; Arbeitsplatz

jobber (n)
Def.: unofficial broker dealing in securities on his own account at a stock exchange
Ex.: Thanks to the lucky operations of our jobber, we made a fortune at the London stock exchange.

job holder (n)
Def.: person having a job; employee
Ex.: The number of job holders rose by about 250,000 in Sweden between 1960 and 1970.

jobless (adj)
Def.: person(s) without a job; unemployed
Ex.: The number of jobless people dropped last month.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

labour (n)
Def.: workforce; manpower
Ex.: Labour cost is one of the important factors to be considered when fixing a price.

Labour Exchange (Office) (n) [Office]
Def.: (in some countries): government or council run agency or panel acting as a ´market´ between a job seeker and a vacancy
Ex.: In times of business lulls, Labour Exchange officials have few vacancies to offer.

launch (vb)
Def.: to set in motion; to take onto the market; to introduce (into the market)
Ex.: When this product was launched in 1994, it met with a ready market.
lancieren; auf den Markt bringen; einführen

lawsuit (n)
Def.: prosecution of a claim in a law court; litigation
Ex.: Since this dispute could not be settled amicably, the company had to bring legal action in a lawsuit.

lease (n)
Def.: contract allowing sb. to use sth. during a specified period of time for a fixed payment
Ex.: We’d better take this piece of equipment on lease rather than buy it.
Pacht(vertrag); Mietvertrag

legal proceedings (adj;n;pl)
Def.: (legal) action taken in a lawsuit before a law court
Ex.: If you are unwilling to pay for the goods supplied we are forced to resort to legal proceedings.

letter of application (n)
Def.: piece of writing intended to find employment
Ex.: A letter of application must include a CV.

letter of credit (n)
Def.: promise by a bank at the request of a customer to pay a certain sum of money to a third party on presentation of specified shipping documents within the validity of a credit granted
Ex.: We’ll hand the goods over to the shipping company as soon as we have received a confirmation of your letter of credit from our bank.

liabilities (n;pl)
Def.: debts; sum(s) of money owed; debit
Ex.: The company’s liabilities were so high that it was forced to file a petition in bankruptcy.
Passiva; Verbindlichkeiten; Schulden; Soll

liability (n)
Def.: responsibility; state of being answerable, of having to conform to duties and obligations under a contract or law, such as third-party liability
Ex.: The company accepts no liability for damage due to circumstances beyond its control.
Haftung; Haftpflicht; Verantwortlichkeit

libel (n)
Def.: oral defamation
Ex.: They had to sue the customers for libel since their statements were detrimental to the firm’s business.
Beleidigung; (mündliche) Verleumdung

limited company (in Britain): (adj;n) [in Britain]
Def.: company limited by shares; types: -1) private l. c. (Ltd.) -2) public l. c. (PLC) 1) company with restricted right to transfer shares; 2) company with at least 7 shareholders; its shares freely transferable;
Ex.: A private company must have at least one director whereas a public company must have at least two.

limited partnership (adj;n)
Def.: partnership in which at least one partner has limited liability and does not participate in its management
Ex.: Being involved in the management of your limited partnership you will be liable to pay all the debts.

line production (n)
Def.: continuous or uninterrupted manufacture of goods, for example using an assembly line
Ex.: We’ll have to switch to line production as the demand for our products has doubled since last year.

loan (n)
Def.: sum of money lent on the basis of a security
Ex.: When we applied for that loan, the bank asked us for a security.
Darlehen; Anleihe

location (n)
Def.: site or premises where a business enterprise has its main offices or production facilities
Ex.: Our company has its main location near Nashville/Tennessee.

lockout (n)
Def.: industrial action taken by employers in reponse to strikes by preventing employees from getting to their work places.
Ex.: The company does not accept liability for delays in delivery in circumstances beyond its control such as strikes, lockouts, floods and fire.

long-term (n)
Def.: lasting or taking a long time
Ex.: The riskless rate of interest on long-term loans has rarely been above 5 per cent.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

management (n)
Def.: control of business operations of a company
Ex.: As of January 1, this company will be under new management.
Geschäftsführung, -leitung; Betriebsleitung; Vorstand

manpower (n)
Def.: number of men or labour available to do work or a job
Ex.: Construction work cannot be completed on time due to a shortage in manpower.

manufacture (n)
Def.: (industrial) production; making
Ex.: Figures for the car manufacture went down last year from 1.2m to well under one million.
Herstellung; Produktion

manufacturer (n)
Def.: person or company making goods or products
Ex.: Our company is competing directly with the local manufacturers.

marketability (n)
Def.: quality or condition of a product to sell in the market
Ex.: As the sales managers are not convinced of the product´s marketability, the production department will have to redesign it.

market analysis (n)
Def.: process of investigating and checking for market prospects
Ex.: Before putting its products on the market, the company has them subjected to a thorough market analysis.

marketing (n)
Def.: process of planning and executing the concept, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services
Ex.: Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want.
Absatzwirtschaft (Marketing)

market prospect (n)
Def.: expectation or hope (of supplier) to sell in the market; also ‘sales prospect’
Ex.: Our company will invest in the European market because it considers market prospects there very promising.

market research (n)
Def.: investigation or survey of a market to find out about market prospects for a product/service
Ex.: We had to contract for extensive market research to be sure that our products will find a ready market in the country.

market share (n)
Def.: part or (geographical) area of a market, with which a product meets
Ex.: We have to intensify our sales promotion abroad in order to gain a bigger market share for our goods in the foreign market.

maturity (n)
Def.: (of bill of exchange) date at which a bill becomes due (for payment)
Ex.: Our bank will discount 1.5 percent from the face value of your bill if it is presented before maturity.

means of production (n;pl)
Def.: factors or resources useful to meet the needs of people or industries
Ex.: Division of labour offers a chance to increase the productivity achieved using the means of production available.

Mediterranean country (adj;n)
Def.: country bordering the Mediterranean Sea (between Europe, the Near and Middle East and Africa)
Ex.: The information they had on the balance of payments situation of this Mediterranean country is such as to prevent them increasing exports.

merchandise (n)
Def.: goods in trade; commodity
Ex.: The company is able to supply merchandise on demand.

merchant (n)
Def.: salesperson dealing in goods and/or services; dealer; distributor
Ex.: He has seven years experience as a merchant in many sectors of this industry.
(Groß-)Händler; Kaufmann

merger (n)
Def.: combining of estates, business companies, etc. to be under one control or management
Ex.: The board of directors decided in favour of a merger with one of the company’s suppliers
Fusion; Zusammenlegung (auch Aktien)

Middle East (n)
Def.: countries from Egypt to Iran
Ex.: She has been working as a project engineer in nearly all Middle East countries for almost three years now.
Naher Osten

money order (n)
Def.: written direction or instruction to a bank or post office to pay money to a named person against a fee
Ex.: Money orders received by a company are also considered as cash on hand.

mortgage (n)
Def.: claim on property given as a security for payment of a debt or loan
Ex.: The majority of mortgage loans are repaid on an annuity basis.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

netting (n)
Def. deducting gross requirements from the amount on hand and on order to generate net requirements
Ex.: There is a technique for calculating gross material requirements down through all the level of the product structure without netting requirements at any level.

Nordic country (adj;n)
Def.: Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland), including Finland
Ex.: Most of our new customers are located in the Nordic countries.
Nordische Länder (Skandinavien)

notice (n) [1]
Def.: information on the termination of a contract
Ex.: Since you failed to fulfill your contractual duties we are forced to give you short notice.
notice (n) [2]
Def.: advice or information about sth
Ex.: We’ll let you have a notice as soon as the shipment is ready for despatch.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

offer (n)
Def.: act of offering the supply of goods or services (at a certain price and on certain terms); quotation; bid
Ex.: Our offer is subject to confirmation.

operations research (n)
Def.: strategies and techniques suitable to prepare decisions to be taken in business management
Ex.: It will be necessary to check with operations research whether our planning data meet the market requirements.
Planungstechniken (operationsanalytische)

order (n)
Def.: contract for buying goods or services at a fixed price and on fixed terms
Ex.: 1. advanced o.: order placed well before goods are needed 2. first/initial o.: order placed for the first time 3. repeat/re- o.: order placed on same terms as preceding one 4. standing o.: order placed at regular intervals on same terms
Auftrag; Bestellung

outbid (vb)
Def.: to offer a price for sth. that is higher than that offered by a rival bidder
Ex.: We had to outbid our competitors to get the exclusive right from the inventor.

outlet (n)
Def.: market; point of sale
Ex.: GM increased their marketing efforts in China to double the number of outlets in this country.
Markt; Verkauf(sstelle); Vertriebsmöglichkeit

output (n)
Def.: result of a production process; factor determining productivity
Ex.: Increase in productivity cannot be achieved unless output can be raised in relation to input.

overhead projector (n)
Def.: equipment for showing transparencies; abbreviated OHP
Ex.: To make your presentation a success you’ll have to use at least an OHP to show the graphs.
Tageslichtschreiber; Overhead-Projektor; OHP

overheads (n;pl)
Def.: costs for operating a business except manufacturing costs
Ex.: If one includes the overheads, the selling price of these products should be higher.
allgemeine Betriebskosten

overtime (n)
Def.: working time in excess of regular or agreed working hours.
Ex.: We are getting 50 percent more pay for working overtime.

owner (n)
Def.: person who possesses sth. or has sth. as property
Ex.: As an owner of this business you’ll have to take all the risks.
Besitzer; Inhaber


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package (n)
Def.: piece or unit of goods packed or packaged
Ex.: The packages should be marked and numbered before being shipped.
Packstück; Kollo

packaging (n)
Def.: act of wrapping or packing goods in special container(s)
Ex.: Please note that we will have to invoice you for the packaging costs as well.

parent company (n)
Def.: company controlling other company/ies by owning the majority of shares or dominating its board of directors
Ex.: The directives given by our parent company must strictly be complied with.

partnership (n)
Def.: association of persons doing business together for a profit; types: -1) ordinary or general p. -2) limited p.
Ex.: 1) Its partners have unlimited liability – 2) At least one of its partners has limited liability who is not involved in management

part-timer (n)
Def.: employee holding a part-time job, person working reduced working hours
Ex.: The entire increment in the number of employees consists entirely of part-timers.

patent (n)
Def.: right or authory given by government to a (legal) person as an inventor of sth. to make or use it, and protection of sth. from imitation by third party; also ‘letters patent’
Ex.: Intellectual property is being protected by patents and trademarks in this country.
Patent; Schutzrecht

peak (n)
Def.: uppermost part of sth.; top
Ex.: This diagram shows that sales reached another peak in September.
Spitze; Höchst- , Spitzenwert

performance (n) [1]
Def.: achievement; output or result of business activities
Ex.: They got a pay rise and a promotion as a result of their outstanding performance in finding new product outlets.
performance (n) [2]
Def.: carrying out or through (a contract)
Ex.: The customer may cancel the order if we are late in the performance of our contractual duties.

petition in bankruptcy (n)
Def.: application by insolvent debtor filed with a court when unable to pay (debts)
Ex.: An insolvent debtor will file a petition in bankruptcy with the proper court.

petty cash (adj;n)
Def.: money from or for small payment(s)
Ex.: I think that the invoice amount is so low that we might just as well pay it from petty cash.

power of attorney (n)
Def.: document authorizing sb. to act on behalf of someone else
Ex.: The company will give their lawyers power of attorney to take legal action in this matter.

premises (n;pl)
Def.: house or building including the real estate on which it stands
Ex.: The products are being manufactured and assembled on the firm’s own premises.
Gebäude; Räumlichkeiten; (Betriebs-)Gelände

presentation (n)
Def.: (commented) show or display of (new) product or service
Ex.: To make your presentation a success you’ll have to use an OHP to show the graphs.

price clause (n)
Def.: term of sale offered by a supplier; e.g. stating that prices can be changed at any time within a certain period without informing potential customer
Ex.: Since your quotation said ‘Prices subject to change without notice’, we are asking you to confirm the prices stated in the offer.
Preisänderung(en) vorbehalten

private limited company (plc) (adj.; n) [plc]
Def.: (in Britain): company limited by shares, restricted right to transfer shares and to invite public to subscribe to them.
Ex.: A private limited company must have at least one director.

proceeds (n;pl)
Def.: financial result or profits earned from a business; earnings
Ex.: The trustee will also have to distribute the proceeds to the creditors in proportion to their debts.

procurement (n)
Def.: act of obtaining or acquiring capital, services, information and materials for business purposes
Ex.: It is up to procurement to decide how much material has to be ordered to complete the job.

profit-and-loss account (n)
Def.: overall account, as part of the annual accounts, that comprises the total expenditure and proceeds for a company within a specified period of time
Ex.: The profit-and-loss account is one of the instruments used in business to check if a company has achieved its objectives.

progress report (n)
Def.: report or paper given at certain intervals on the state of activities and results of a scheme or project in progress
Ex.: The board expects the project manager to give a progress report at the end of the year.
Zwischenbericht; Tätigkeitsbericht

promotion (n)
Def.: furthering or enhancing sth.; help to organize and start; help to make progress; giving or getting a higher rank or position
Ex.: Her request for a promotion and rise in salary was turned down without explanation.
(Verkaufs-)Förderung; Beförderung

property (n)
Def.: things owned; possession(s)
Ex.: Intellectual property is being protected by patents and trademarks in this country.
Eigentum; Besitz; Teilhabe

proprietary (adj)
Def.: owned or controlled by sb.; held as property, protected by patent
Ex.: We’ll have to sue our competitors since they violated our proprietary rights in this product.
Eigentum-; gesetzlich geschützt

proprietor (n)
Def.: person who owns real estate or patent right(s)
Ex.: The rival companies appeared before a law court to find out which of them was the real proprietor of the copyright.
Eigentümer; Inhaber (von Rechten); Teilhaber

public limited company (plc) (adj.; n) [plc]
Def.: company with at least 7 shareholders; shares freely transferable and open for subscription to the public
Ex.: A public limited company must have at least two directors.
Aktiengesellschaft (AG)

purchase (n)
Def.: act of buying
Ex.: We are enclosing a purchase order form which please fill in and return as soon as possible.
Kauf; Ankauf

purchasing power (adj;n)
Def.: rate or capacity of a currency to buy goods or services
Ex.: With the purchasing power of their currencies being as low as it is, Third World countries will be unable to raise their living standards noticeably.


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quality assurance (n)
Def.: procedure of checking and monitoring products in order to maintain quality standards
Ex.: Production management has to include quality assurance.

quantity discount (n)
Def.: discount allowed to a customer ordering a major quantity of goods
Ex.: Considering the large volume of our order we would ask you for a quantity discount of at least 10 percent.

questionnaire (n)
Def.: printed form or list with questions used to get business-relevant information
Ex.: Market research instruments may include gathering information by means of interviews, questionnaires, etc.

quotation (n)
Def.: price or exchange rate of stocks and shares stated at the stock exchange
Ex.: The low quotations of the company´s shares are evidence of its poor business prospects.

quotation (quote) (n) [quote]
Def.: offer or proposal relating mainly to prices and terms
Ex.: Since your quotation was ‘Prices subject to change without notice’ please confirm the prices stated in your offer.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

R&D (abbrev.)
Def.: studies and investigations undertaken to discover new (aspects of) a system or technology and efforts made to improve or modify an (existing) system
Ex.: R&D efforts made during the past decade have led to an outburst of new inventions in the field of automation.

real estate (adj,n)
Def.: (legal) immovable property, such a land, natural resources, and buildings; premises
Ex.: Real estate prices have gone up substantially this year.
Immobilien; Grundeigentum; Liegenschaften

receipt (n) [1]
Def.: document showing that goods or money have been received
Ex.: The bill of lading is also a formal receipt issued by a carrier for the goods being transported.
Empfangsbescheinigung; Quittung
receipt (n) [2]
Def.: act of receiving or having receiving (goods or services)
Ex.: The invoice amount will be paid on receipt of the goods.

receivables (adj,pl)
Def.: claims against an individual or company for future receipt of cash or other assets
Ex.: All receivables expected to be realized in cash within a year are presented in the current assets section of the balance sheet.

receiver (official) (n;adj) [official]
Def.: person officially appointed by a court to be in control of a bankrupt’s assets
Ex.: Unless the creditors have appointed a trustee in bankruptcy the official receiver will handle the bankrupt’s assets.
Konkursverwalter (amtlicher)

record (n)
Def.: document or account of facts and data laid down electronically or in writing
Ex.: We saw from our records that your account has still not been settled.
Aufzeichnung; Unterlage

recruit (vb)
Def.: to hire, to employ
Ex.: Our company recruits its staff from all over the world.

remit (vb)
Def.: to transfer funds either between accounts or through other instruments of payment
Ex.: The invoice amount may also be remitted by postal or money order.

remittance (n)
Def.: act of remitting funds between accounts or through other instruments of payment
Ex.: Payment may be effected by remittance through postal or money orders.

rent (vb)
Def.: to pay money on a regular basis for the use of sth.
Ex.: Unless the building can be completed before, we’ll have to rent a few office flats.

representative (n)
Def.: business person or agent representing a firm or company
Ex.: We met with one of your representatives at the Hannover fair last month.

research and development (R&D) (n)
Def.: studies and investigations undertaken to discover new (aspects of) a system or technology and efforts made to improve or modify an (existing) system
Ex.: Research and development efforts made during the past decade have led to an outburst of new inventions in the field of automation.
Forschung und Entwicklung

reserve (n)
Def.: fund(s) from business transactions, ploughed back for future use
Ex.: The pension reserves of the company amounted to over 1 billion dollars.

resource (n)
Def.: supplies of (raw) materials, goods or manpower available for use
Ex.: The natural resources of this country are mineral wealth, potential water power and the fertility of its soils.

resumé (US) (n)
Def.: curriculum vitae or CV: short, tabulated report or statement of a person´s private or professional career
Ex.: Your application form should be accompanied by a resumé.

retail trade (n)
Def.: business activities dealing with small quantities of goods
Ex.: Figures in the retail trade of this country have dropped substantially.

retirement (n)
Def.: withdrawal from one´s working life; status of pensioner
Ex.: There have been several retirements in our company lately.

retrieval (n)
Def.: recovery of data or information from a database
Ex.: The performance of the computer has to be high enough to ensure fast storage and retrieval of information.

return (n)
Def.: proceeds on investment or undertaking
Ex.: We´ll see a really good return on next year as well.

revenue (n)
Def.: income; total annual income of a State or government
Ex.: The Minister of Finance announced that this year’s inland revenue had dropped by 2.5 per cent.

revocable (adj)
Def.: (of letter of credit) liable of being modified or cancelled at any time without notice
Ex.: Our bank has agreed to open a revocable documentary credit in your favour.

rise (n)
Def.: going up(wards); climbing; reaching a higher level or position
Ex.: After some years of job experience he expected a substantial rise in wages.
Anstieg; Erhöhung (auch: Gehalt)

royalty (n)
Def.: sum paid to owner of land, copyright or patent to be allowed to use it
Ex.: When a windfarm is being built on some of your land, you might get a royalty on it.
Tantieme; Lizenz(gebühr)


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sabbatical (adj)
Def.: freedom from routine task(s) or work (for a certain length of time) to follow an off-the-job training or educational course
Ex.: According to a survey, this country shows the highest resistance to sabbaticals.

salary (n)
Def.: regular payment to employee for work under contract on a monthly or yearly basis
Ex.: Being even a highly specialised expert, you won’t get a salary exceeding $ 100,000 per annum.
Gehalt; Besoldung

sales (n;pl)
Def.: number of business transactions; turnover of goods and services; business activities
Ex.: The sales figures have essentially dropped for the last two months.
Verkäufe; Umsatz

salesman (n)
Def.: salesperson; one who sells goods or services
Ex.: He´s been salesman for about twenty years.

sales manager (n)
Def.: head of sales department or division
Ex.: The company seeks a sales manager for its subsidiary in Spain.
Verkaufsleiter(in); -direktor(in)

salesperson (n)
Def.: person buying and selling goods and services; merchant; dealer; agent
Ex.: To be an efficient salesperson, it will not be enough just to wait for customers to come by.
Händler(in); Verkäufer(in); Agent

sales prospect (n)
Def.: expectation of selling (goods or services) in a market
Ex.: According to information from their chamber of commerce, sales prospects in this country should be excellent.

sample (n)
Def.: part or specimen of a product to show its making or quality
Ex.: Enclosed please find a sample of our textile cloth for examination.
Muster; (Waren-)Probe

savings bank (n)
Def.: private financial instution holding clients’ savings and giving interests on them
Ex.: Our savings bank offers you a 6-percent interest on your long-term savings.

scarcity (n)
Def.: lack of natural or human resources or means of production
Ex.: Scarcity of the means of production forces many developing countries to ask the World Bank for financial aid.

scheduling (n)
Def.: timing the individual steps and stages of work
Ex.: There are various levels of scheduling within a manufacturing company.

security (n) [1]
Def.: certificate or document showing ownership of property
Ex.: When we applied for a loan, the bank asked us for a security.
Sicherheit; Bürgschaft; Kaution; Schuldverschreibung
security (n) [2]
Def.: document showing ownership; share
Ex.: They spent all their funds on government securities.
Aktie; Wertpapier

semi-finished goods (adj;n)
Def.: goods at an intermediate stage of manufacture and ready for further processing
Ex.: We expect immediate delivery of your semi-finished goods as our production schedule is very tight.
Halbfabrikate; Halbzeug

semi-skilled labour (adj;n)
Def.: labour trained on the job
Ex.: I think this job can also be done using semi-skilled labour.
angelernte Arbeitskraft

services (n;pl)
Def.: practical or intellectual expert assistance or activities
Ex.: Our company is able to render all kinds of services in the catering industry.

settlement (n) [1]
Def.: (in trade): paying of bill or invoice; balancing of accounts
Ex.: We have to insist on the settlement of accounts before sending you another consignment.
Ausgleich (Rechnungs-)
settlement (n) [2]
Def.: (in trade disputes): to make an agreement; to come to terms
Ex.: The parties to the Contract agreed on a settlement of their disputes in an amicable way.

share (n)
Def.: equal part of a company’s capital entitling its holder to a fixed proportion of the company’s profits;security; stock
Ex.: International stock exchanges deal in all kinds of stock and share.
Aktie; Anteilschein

shipment (n) [1]
Def.: delivery; goods being delivered or forwarded
Ex.: The goods will be ready for shipment by August 1.
Lieferung; Sendung; Auslieferung
shipment (n) [2]
Def.: act of sending or shipping goods
Ex.: The port of shipment will be Liverpool.

shipping agent (adj;n)
Def.: forwarding agent
Ex.: We have passed the goods to our shipping agent this morning for transport to your warehouse.
Spediteur; Spedition

shipping company (adj;n)
Def.: shipping agent’s office engaging seamen’s services and handling transportation by sea
Ex.: The necessary documents have today been released by the shipping company and the goods cleared through customs.

shipping document (adj;n)
Def.: document relating to a shipment of goods
Ex.: The shipping documents are to be issued in triplicate.

shipping instruction (adj;n)
Def.: information given by customer or supplier to carrier or shipping company about how goods should be packed and transported
Ex.: We are unable to despatch the goods unless you send us your shipping instructions.

short-term (adj;n)
Def.: lasting or taking a short time
Ex.: We’ll have to pay a high interest rate on this short-term loan.

short-termism (adj;n)
Def.: tendency of an industry or management to maximise short-term investment
Ex.: A possible area of conflict between British and German companies could be the British preoccupation with short-termism.
kurzfristige Kapitalanlage

sight bill (n)
Def.: bill of exchange payable on demand
Ex.: If you are willing to grant us a 5 percent discount we shall pay for the goods by sight bill.

sight draft (n)
Def.: sight bill
Ex.: Payment can be effected by handing in a sight draft.

Single European Market (adj;n)
Def.: concept of a customs and duty free exchange of goods and services within Europe
Ex.: It is important to overcome cultural barriers even in business to make the Single European Market more effective.
Gemeinsamer (europäischer) Markt

single market (adj;n)
Def.: internal market created by and for the European Union by doing away with customs regulations
Ex.: Since the creation of the single market, trade between the European countries has increased considerably.
Binnenmarkt (europäischer)

skilled labour (adj;n)
Def.: manpower or workforce trained for a specialised activity, either on the job or under an official training system
Ex.: This special work cannot be done efficiently unless some more skilled labour has been hired.

slander (n)
Def.: written defamation
Ex.: Our attorneys advise us that we consider your advert a piece of slander unless you withdraw it immediately.
Verleumdung; (schriftliche) Beleidigung

slump (n)
Def.: (commerc.) sharp or steep fall or drop
Ex.: Due to continuing industrial actions, sales figures showed a slump in 1973.
Rückgang (plötzlicher)

staff (n)
Def.: manpower; personnel
Ex.: We recruit our staff from all over the world.
Personal; Belegschaft

stamp (n)
Def.: piece of printed paper to show the postage, insurance dues, etc. paid
Ex.: Please provide your letter with the necessary stamps to avoid delays.
Brief-; Wertmarke

standard of living (n)
Def.: level (or degree) of material wealth sufficient to ensure subsistence
Ex.: The family has an income high enough to give them a good standard of living.

statistics (n;pl)
Def.: collection of information and data (shown in figures and numbers)
Ex.: According to recent statistics, the population figure for this country has reached a new peak.

stipulation (n)
Def.: clause or statement in a contract referring to its terms and conditions
Ex.: The terms of delivery and payment shall be fulfilled according to the stipulations of this Contract.

stock (n) [1]
Def.: paper money lent (to a government) in return for interest; shares in the capital of a business
Ex.: Stocks are usually quoted per $100 nominal value, though fractions thereof can also be dealt in.
Wertpapier; Effekte(n); Staatspapier
stock (n) [2]
Def.: material or supply stored for later treatment or sales
Ex.: It will be necessary to purchase large amounts to be able to sell from stock.

stock corporation (n)
Def.: (USA) equivalent to a limited company in Britain
Ex.: An American stock corporation has a board of directors.
Kapitalgesellschaft (amerik.)

stock exchange (n)
Def.: place where stocks and shares of companies are bought and sold in public
Ex.: Most international stock exchanges deal in all kinds of stock and share.

stock system (n)
Def.: system of goods stored, held in store
Ex.: Since the company has automated its stock system, deliveries can be effected on time.
Lagerhaltung; Warenlager

storage (n) [1]
Def.: collection and keeping ( data) for later use
Ex.: The performance of the computer has to be high enough to ensure fast storage and retrieval of information.
storage (n) [2]
Def.: collection and keeping (material, goods) for later use
Ex.: Storage of such an amount of material will be costly.

strike (n)
Def.: industrial action taken by workers or employees
Ex.: After a long period of strikes and lockouts, the factory owners eventually decided to enter into wage agreements.

subscription (n)
Def.: contract entered for the supply of newspaper or (trade) magazine against regular payment by subscriber to supplier
Ex.: The rising number of subscriptions to NEWS MAGAZINE has enabled the publishers to stick to their sales policy.

subsidiary (adj)
Def.: firm or company controlled by a parent company
Ex.: A successful business policy allowed our firm to establish new subsidiaries in your area.
Tochter(firma; -gesellschaft)

subsidy (n)
Def.: funds granted to an industry, especially by government to help keep up prices or living standards
Ex.: Most developing countries cannot survive unless the industrialised countries grant subsidies to them.

subsistence (n)
Def.: means of living; existence; maintenance
Ex.: Wages in many Third World countries are hardly high enough for workers to live on a subsistence level.
Auskommen; Unterhalt

summary (n)
Def.: brief or short report or account of main points or items
Ex.: Before making a decision in this matter, let´s have a summary of the important issues.

supplier (n)
Def.: person or company providing goods or services to a customer on demand
Ex.: Under IncoTerms, the supplier and the buyer know exactly what their duties are when a contract has been concluded.
Lieferant; Lieferfirma

supply (n) [1]
Def.: provision of goods or services
Ex.: The selling price will be fixed as a result of supply and demand.
supply (n) [2]
Def.: stock of goods or energy
Ex.: We are unable to deliver the quantity ordered as the goods are in short supply.
Lager(bestand); Vorrat
supply (n) [3]
Def.: provision of goods or services
Ex.: The supply of electricity to remote areas will be costly.

surplus (n) [1]
Def.: quantity in excess of what is needed or wanted
Ex.: Unemployment rates rose as a result of the surplus labour.
surplus (n) [2]
Def.: excess of receipts over expenditure
Ex.: The surplus gained from this year’s business will be plought back into the company’s investment plans.
Mehrbetrag (Reingewinn)

survey (n) [1]
Def.: research or investigation into consumer habits, wishes or requirements; poll
Ex.: The company collects the relevant data by means of a comprehensive and nation-wide survey.
survey (n) [2]
Def.: investigation into and report on damage to goods (in transit)
Ex.: Before we can pay any indemnification to you, our expert will have to do a survey.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

table (n)
Def.: systematically arranged list (of data; information)
Ex.: The upward trend of our sales can best be presented in a table.

takeover (n)
Def.: act of a prospective operator to take over a plant or piece of equipment from a manufacturer
Ex.: The takeover date is planned for the first of May.

tax (n)
Def.: sum of money (to be) paid by sb. to government according to income, value or property, etc.
Ex.: Price calculation will also include taxes and duties on goods imported.

taxation (n)
Def.: system used by government to raise taxes; taxes (to be) paid
Ex.: Due to the complex taxation regulations many tax payers were unsure of which goods were taxable.

tax benefit (n)
Def.: avantage or relief in tax(es) to be paid, allowed to taxpayer by official authorities
Ex.: We invested most of our profit into buying new machinery, thus saving a lot of money from tax benefits.

technology impact assessment (n)
Def.: appraisal and evaluation of environmental effects resulting from the use of (new) technologies
Ex.: Before being able to decide on the settlement of the new industry in this area, we will have to have a technology impact assessment carried out.

tender (n)
Def.: bid or offer made in response to an invitation to tender; short for the whole tender system
Ex.: Since there is no competitor in this trade, we may as well enter into a contract without inviting tenders.

term (n) [1]
Def.: business condition; sales condition
Ex.: Suppliers offer their goods and services at certain prices and on certain terms.
Bedingung; Kondition
term (n) [2]
Def.: period of time or duration
Ex.: This contract shall be in force for a term of 5 years.
Frist; Dauer

termination (n) [1]
Def.: ending of a contract
Ex.: Breach of the contractual duties by one of the parties to this Contract shall lead to the termination of the Contract.
Beendigung; (Vertrags-)Ablauf; Erlöschen
termination (n) [2]
Def.: notice given to end a contract
Ex.: Breach of the contractual duties by one of the parties to this Contract shall lead to the termination of the Contract.

third-party liability (n)
Def.: liability for damage or injury done to a person other than that insured, which an insurance company undertakes to meet
Ex.: This contract is incomplete since it does not include stipulations covering third-party liability.

time bill (n)
Def.: bill of exchange payable on a fixed future date or a specified date after date or sight
Ex.: We are prepared to pay your invoice amount by a 30 days’ time bill.

time draft (n)
Def.: time bill
Ex.: We expect payment of the goods by means of a 90 days’ time draft.

title (n)
Def.: (legal) right or claim to the possession of a position; property
Ex.: May we remind you that our bank holds title to the goods until you have balanced your accounts with us.

total (adj)
Def.: overall amount; entire sum
Ex.: All our investments amount to a total of $ 7 billion.

trade (n) [1]
Def.: exchange of goods and services for money or other goods and services
Ex.: The balance of trade shows clearly whether a country pays its way by exports.
trade (n) [2]
Def.: particular branch or sector of industry
Ex.: Our company has been particularly successful in this trade.
trade (n) [3]
Def.: field or sector of business activity; profession
Ex.: We refer you to our advert in the latest trade journal.

trade discount (n)
Def.: discount allowed to a resaler on the list price of goods
Ex.: Considering the large volume of our order we would ask you for a trade discount of 15 percent.

trademark (n)
Def.: special name or design given (and registered) for proprietary product
Ex.: Since the company failed to have the product’s trademark registered, its competitors used it for their products.

trade(s) union (n) [s]
Def.: organized association of workers or employees
Ex.: Over the past decade, the Trades Union Congress has been losing control over its affiliated unions.

trainee (n)
Def.: person receiving a training; apprentice
Ex.: This year, our company has been able to offer 100 new openings for trainees.
Auszubildender (Azubi); Lehrling

train (vb)
Def.: to teach a person for a special purpose to make him/her a specialist
Ex.: Our company makes every effort to train the staff on the job.

trainer (n)
Def.: person teaching others for a job or professional/vocational career
Ex.: Our company has a vacancy for a trainer in our careers’ department.

transaction (n)
Def.: (in business) any commercial activitiy leading to the exchange of goods or services based on a contract
Ex.: You will find all your transactions recorded in your quarterly statement.

transfer (n)
Def.: (of funds) remittance of money between bank accounts
Ex.: A transfer made by mail is called a mail transfer (MT).

transparency (n)
Def.: sheet of transparent material on which sth. is written or drawn
Ex.: We have prepared a few transparencies showing graphs on the firm’s research and development activities.

trustee (n)
Def.: (in bankruptcy): person appointed by the creditors of an insolvent debtor to be in charge of the debtor’s assets
Ex.: The trustee’s principal duties are to realize the debtor’s assets to the creditors’ best advantage and distribute the proceeds.
Konkursverwalter (der Gläubiger)

turnkey (n)
Def.: product or system ready for immediate use or application
Ex.: Our competitors are importing total turnkey solar systems at prices lower than we are able to offer.

turnover (n)
Def.: amount of money turned over in business within a peiod of time or for a particular transaction
Ex.: Since the group’s turnover of goods has proved satisfactory, the management has agreed to pay a premium.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

undersell (vb)
Def.: to sell a product at a lower price than a competitor
Ex.: They could gain a bigger market share by underselling their products.

undertake (vb)
Def.: to commit oneself to sth.; to engage to do sth.
Ex.: Each party to this Contract shall undertake to fulfill its contractual duties within the period specified under Article 5.
verpflichten (sich)

underwriter (n)
Def.: person or company effecting insurance transactions for their own account and risk; insurer
Ex.: Our Society does not transact insurance business but has it done by our underwriters.

unit (n)
Def.: single piece or group considered complete in itself; quantity or amount used as a standard of measurement
Ex.: The unit price shown in your invoice seems to differ from that offered in your quotation.
Einheit; Stück


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

vacancy (n)
Def.: open position in a company; opening
Ex.: We are seeking qualified staff for several vacancies.
freie Stelle

validity (n)
Def.: term or period during which a document is legally effective or in force
Ex.: We regret being unable to pay the invoice amount as the documents have not been presented within the validity of the credit.

VAT (abbrev.)
Def.: short for ‘value-added tax’: tax on the rise in value of a product at each stage of production and marketing
Ex.: The price of our machine is $ 125, VAT included.
Mehrwertsteuer; MwSt

venture (n)
Def.: prospective enterprise or business, usually undertaken by at least two partners as ´joint venture´
Ex.: There is a possibility of a co-operative venture in a third world country between our company and a solar panel manufacturer.
Unternehmung; Unternehmen

vocational training (adj;n)
Def.: theoretical and practical teaching for a specific job or vocation
Ex.: Most Western countries increase their efforts to improve vocational training for their youths.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

wage agreement (n)
Def.: legal arrangement between employers and employees on wages
Ex.: After a long period of strikes and lockouts, the factory owners eventually decided to enter into wage agreements.

wages (n;pl)
Def.: payment received (or made), usually for manual work or services, on a weekly or monthly basis
Ex.: The trade unions have asked for a rise in wages of $ 15 a week.
Lohn; Arbeitsentgelt

warehouse (n)
Def.: place or building where goods or materials are stored or stocked
Ex.: We have taken out insurance from warehouse to warehouse.

warranty (n)
Def.: written guarantee of supplier or producer to repair or replace faulty or defective goods within a certain period of time
Ex.: Our products carry a warranty of 5 years.
Garantie; Gewährleistung

waybill (n)
Def.: consignment note
Ex.: Please make sure the waybill is issued in triplicate.

wholesale (n)
Def.: selling large quantities of goods (usually to retail trade); distribution
Ex.: We want you to understand that our prices are wholesale.

work (n)
Def.: purposeful use of physical or mental powers or skills to achieve sth.; employment; job
Ex.: Nowadays, computers take over much of the work formerly done by man.

working hour (adj;n)
Def.: period of time during which sb. works or is employed
Ex.: Our normal working hours range from 8 p.m. to 5 p.m., with a one-hour lunch break.


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

yield (n)
Def.: amount produced; proceeds; profit
Ex.: The yields on his shares have decreased this year.
Ertrag; Ausstoß