Verb forms – Use of ’ing’-form

Verb forms – Use of ’ing’-form

Example (1): The panel answering the questions consists of …
‘… answering …’
Example (2): … when considering planning a wind farm.
‘… considering …’
Example (3): They don’t expect it to keep running.
‘… running’

Notes

Use this ‘-ing’ form

  • to shorten a relative clause or a sub-clause, as in Examples (1) and (2),
  • after certain verbs such as ‘keep’, referring to a continuing action, as in Example (3).

More examples of the ’ing’ form

Example (4): I can get to the field without having to drive across them.
‘… without having …’
Example (5): Is he capable of doing a maintenance job?
‘… doing …’
Example (6): You can compensate for it by increasing the speed.
‘… increasing …’
Example (7): They are carrying out the tests with Lucy controlling the blades.
‘… with … controlling …’

Use this ‘-ing’ form

  • after prepositions, such as ‘without’, as in Example (4),
  • after certain adjectives with prepositions, such as ‘capable of’, as in Example (5),
  • after ‘by’ starting a sub-clause, as in Example (6),
  • in a construction including ‘with’, a noun or pronoun and a verb,
    used for a sub-clause or sentence expressing something of minor
    importance, as in Example (7).